During the last year we have had to face substantial losses due to the Asian crises.

I think the above sentence is flawed. It should be the following:

During the last year we had to face substantial losses due to the Asian crises.

You can't use the present perfect form for a past event.

In response to the mangement's wage freeze, the workers staged a token strike.

I think the word mangement's is wrong. It should be managements' here.
1 2
The sentence is not flawed. You CAN use the present perfect for a past event. But in that case you can't specify an exact time and still remain grammatically correct.


Again, the sentence is fine. There is only one management. With the apostrophe at the end of "managements" two or more managements are indicated. And then there is the question of whether "management" is a count noun at all. Taking "management" as a noncount noun, the apostrophe after the "s" is completely impossible.

Hope this helped. Emotion: smile

Thanks for the reply. According to your clarification, the following sentence is correct.

During the Second World War, people have had many difficulties overcome.

I wouldn't write the above because the war took place 50 years ago. I haven't learned to write present perfect for an event which took place 50 years ago.
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No, Andrei. It's not correct. I guess my clarification needs clarification! Emotion: smile

It has to be
"During the Second World War, people had many difficulties [to] overcome."
(I assume you accidentally left out "to".)

The reason is that the end of WWII does not reach as far as the present moment.


In the case of
"During the last year, we have had to face ..." (the example in your original post)
the last year is presumed to end at the present moment. Since "last year" (in this reading) reaches as far as the present moment, the present perfect can be used.

If, in October of 2004, we wish to refer to all of 2003 as "last year", we can use the expression "the last calendar year". In this case we will need to say
"During the last calendar year, we had to face ..." or "During 2003 we had to face ..." because the time periods in question do not extend to the present moment.

Simple past vs Present perfect also.

Even more clear? Emotion: smile

I didn't read your answeres for as I was away. Today I am back and log on to the Internet.

I deeply appreciate your clarifications.

I have learnt the difference between the last year and just last year as in the following:

The last year mens 365 days back from today. So from today to the 9th of October 2003 is 'the last year'.

If you just say last year, it means the year 2003.

The same goes with the words 'last week' and 'the last week'

The last week means a seven days back from today. Today is Saturday; so seven days back from today is the last week.

If you say just 'last week' , it means the week 40. This week is week 41.

You might think otherwise.
In general terms, yes, I believe you understand the differences, but the word "during" is also important.

I think the contrast is more between "during the last/past week" and "last week".
With the first you can use the present perfect tense. The use of present perfect will force a reading of "during the past seven days ending today".

The use of the words "during the last" or "during the past" is important to clarify that the time period extends into present time. If the time period extends up to the present, the present perfect can be used; otherwise, not.

During the past week, we have answered many questions.
During the last week, they have seen two elephants and three tigers.


Last week we have answered many questions. (Wrong. Last week has ended. Otherwise we would have said "this week".)
Last week we answered many questions. (Correct.)
During the last week of their African safari in 1998, they have seen two elephants and three tigers. (Wrong. The seeing does not extend into present time.)
During the last week of ..., they saw two elephants ... (Correct.)

I'm not sure if that answers all your questions, but you can always post again if necessary!Emotion: smile
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.

I do appreciate your lengthy replies; because it really enhances my knowledge of English.
It is very great for all of us to have a man of your calibre who answers questions with necessary details.

By the way, I would like to know you speak BrE or the Uncle Sam's English.

You have no obligation to disclose your identity here. I respect your privacy. Many people contribute here incognito to maintain their privacy.
Hi Andrei,

California Jim is great. He's excellent at providing answers. As to whether he speaks BrE or Uncle Sam's English, I encouage you to look at his name. There's a hint. Emotion: smile

I too like reading his answers. They are very good.

Oh! American
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