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He realized that the world could run out of key resources, ------------ he was a harsh critic of the wastefulness of modern industrial society.

A) so that
B) whether
C) so long as
D) and so
E) but

This question has been discussed on "General English Grammar Questions" forum before, but I need a more comprehensible evaluation on the answer/answers.

We have no objection "D". Couldn't "A", however, be also a logical answer ? Or couldn't we use"so that" as a conjunction of an adverbial clause of Result?

Could you make an explanation about the issue? Why or why not?

Any comment'll be much appreciated. Thanks in advance
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YulysessWe have no objection "D".
Good, as this is the best answer.

Couldn't "A", however, be also a logical answer ?
Yes, A is a logically correct answer. The problem is that it is not grammatically correct. I think that what you are confusing so that with is such that. Such that would be grammatically correct.
Anonymous
YulysessWe have no objection "D".
Good, as this is the best answer.
Couldn't "A", however, be also a logical answer ?
Yes, A is a logically correct answer. The problem is that it is not grammatically correct. I think that what you are confusing so that with is such that. Such that would be grammatically correct.
Thanks Anon!

Ok, to you, then, is it a good and qualified ELT test question? To me not!
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Hello Yulysess

I still find A acceptable. But I wonder whether "so that" seems unwarranted to some people because the second clause might be construed as "an assumption of the writer", rather than an "objective fact".

MrP
YulysessOk, to you, then, is it a good and qualified ELT test question? To me not!
I think that it depends on the purpose and nature of the ELT test. However, I believe that this is valid as a question of grammar, and that all English speakers with a good knowledge of grammar would respond correctly whereas undoubltedly some native English speakers would not.
MrPedanticI still find A acceptable. But I wonder whether "so that" seems unwarranted to some people because the second clause might be construed as "an assumption of the writer", rather than an "objective fact".

I consider so that to be incorrect because to me so that implies in order that or for the purpose that. Here, this is clearly not the intended meaning. As well, the tense of the following verb in inconsistent with my interpretation. I prefer a construction such as such that, where to me such that imples to the degree that.
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Hello Anon

"So that" can also mean "with the result that", or "with the consequence that" (see the Oxford English Dictionary, under "so".)

Here are some examples from English literature:


Scott: "To this sturdy Saxon, therefore, the journey was fraught with all manner of displeasure and discomfort; so that he more than once internally cursed the tournament, and him who had proclaimed it, together with his own folly in ever thinking of going thither."

Scott: "This was a small premium, yet, in the first burst of business, it more than sufficed for all Dick's moderate wants; so that he occupied an apartment at the Wallace Inn, cracked his jest with impunity even upon mine host himself, and lived in respect and observance with the chambermaid, hostler, and waiter."

Woolf: "But Hirst did not help him, and the other people with their aimless movements and their unknown lives were disturbing, so that he longed for the empty darkness."

Woolf: "The lights were coming out one after another in the town beneath, and it was very peaceful and cool in the garden, so that he stepped out on to the terrace."

London: "Elijah was the older man, and he weakened first, so that he came to lie up most of the time in his furs."

Trollope: "And now his tongue was unloosed, so that he began to speak quickly."

James: "His old sense of her being a complex and intricate girl had, in that quarter of an hour of talk with her, again become lively, so that he was not absolutely sure his apprehensions had been vain."

MrP
Anonymous
MrPedanticI still find A acceptable. But I wonder whether "so that" seems unwarranted to some people because the second clause might be construed as "an assumption of the writer", rather than an "objective fact".
I consider so that to be incorrect because to me so that implies in order that or for the purpose that. Here, this is clearly not the intended meaning. As well, the tense of the following verb in inconsistent with my interpretation. I prefer a construction such as such that, where to me such that imples to the degree that.
I wonder if you are one of those who prepeared such idle questions for such exams; You must be one of them because of your nick, Anon.

However, people (even those making tests) have one particular meaning in mind when forming a question and maybe that was the case here. That's what I meant to say.

That said, they created a bad question, or rather, a bad set of answers, in which 2 are logically and grammatically valid, whatever they may have had in mind.

In standard English so that is used to denote result or logical consequence, and sometimes equals "in order that". The frequent confusion in the U.S. of so that with such that probably results from the corruption of the language from German.

What about these

We now take x to be a positive real number so that the square root of x is again real.[Correct]
We now take x to be a positive real number so that x^2+3 is greater than 4.[Incorrect]
We now take x to be a positive real number such that x^2+3 is greater than 4.[Correct]
We now take x to be a positive real number so that x^2+3 is greater than 3.[Correct, when "positive" is taken to mean "greater than zero".]

the examples given above are all correct in terms of grammar. The second sentence is incorrect only in terms of the math. If x=1, then x^2+3=4, and is not >4.

Finally, Anon, you must be one of them, and this is a wrong way to defense!!

Take a quick look at here, please; especialy at sentence bottom ( Number 10): http://http://sps.nus.edu.sg/~limchuwe/articles/tips.html
MrPedanticHere are some examples from English literature:
I recognize that some people at some times in the past have used so that in what was considered to be an acceptable fashion. Your citations seem to be from earlier generations.

I recognize that some people, yourself included, accept this construction. I have only my experience to draw from. To me, an American English speaker, this construction is sufficiently incorrect that, although I would not challenge a native speaker and tell him that he is not correct, I certainly would tell a non-native speaker that I do not consider such usage to be a good habit to get into.

This is, of course, my opinion, but it does seem to match the opinion of the person who wrote the question.
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