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1) The aim is to tax companies, like the big tech giants, in the countries where they make their money, and to discourage them from headquartering in certain countries to avoid paying tax.


2) The aim is to tax companies like the big tech giants in the countries where they make their money, and to discourage them from headquartering in certain countries to avoid paying tax.


Could you tell me why there are commas before like and in? And what is the difference between the #1 and #2?


Or instead of like, isn't such as better like in companies, such as the big tech giants, in the countries...


What do you native English speakers think? Thank you so much as usual in advance.

Comments  
Hans51Could you tell me why there are commas before like and in?

That is called a parenthetical phrase, and it is created with those commas. It is as though what is between the commas is inside parentheses, except that when you use commas, the phrase remains within the grammar regime of the sentence. You are supposed to read it as extra information.

Hans51And what is the difference between the #1 and #2?

"And what is the difference between the #1 and #2?"

In number 1, you can read "companies, like the big tech giants, in …" as "companies, for example, the big tech giants, in …". In number 2, it is "companies that are similar to the big tech giants". If you ask me, neither way makes much sense.

Hans51Or instead of like, isn't such as better like in companies, such as the big tech giants, in the countries...

It depends on what you mean. People often loosely use "like" to mean "such as", and that is a mistake in formal writing. But they almost as often avoid "like" when it does not mean "such as" but means "similar to", and that is a mistake in any register.