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a question from my adult ESL class - there are 4 common kinds of compound modifiers, 1. number + noun, 2. noun + present participle, e.g. a prize-winning film 3. noun + past participle, e.g. a stress-related issue, and 4. adjective + past participle. How do we know when you use noun + past participle versus noun + present participle? if you have any idea, please let me know - thanks, heather
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Anonymousthere are 4 common kinds of compound modifiers, 1. number + noun, 2. noun + present participle, e.g. a prize-winning film 3. noun + past participle, e.g. a stress-related issue, and 4. adjective + past participle. How do we know when you use noun + past participle versus noun + present participle?
If I understand your question, I think you may have a misunderstanding about how you can use this information. These compound modifiers already exist as words, and this information simply puts those words into categories.

You cannot typically change the participial component of any of these as you please.

For example, prize-winning cannot be changed to prize-won; you just learn the compound prize-winning as you would learn any other adjective.

CJ
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I guess "noun + present participle" is used in an active sense, when something is actually doing something:

bone-shattering

man-eating

life-saving

and "noun + past participle" is used in a passive sense, when something has something done to it, or when you are describing the (static) properties of something:

star-struck

moth-eaten

lemon-scented
 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.