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I was going over a medical paper with a high-level doctor student of mine and we came across the sentence, "Each subject enrolled in the study presented...". My student then asked me why it was "enrolled" and not "was enrolled" and I can't figure out the answer. We would write, "Each subject who was enrolled in the study presented..." but without the "who" the verb switches from passive to active. Is there anyone here who can enlighten me as to why this occurs?

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bhannaEach subject enrolled

Two possibilities:

1) Each subject went through the process of enrolling himself.
1a) A reduced form of 'each subject who is/was enrolled'. (See further explanations below.)

bhannaEach subject was enrolled

Two possible meanings:

2) Someone else went through the process of enrolling each subject.
3) After someone else enrolled each subject or after the subject enrolled himself, his status was "enrolled", not "not enrolled".


1) is active; 2) is passive; 3) is adjectival
bhannawithout the "who" the verb switches from passive to active.

No. That has nothing to do with it. You can have both active or passive voice or the adjectival form after 'who'.

4) the subject who enrolled; the subjects who enrolled (See 1 above.)
5) the subject who is/was enrolled; the subjects who are/were enrolled (See 2 and 3 above.)
6) the subject enrolled; the subjects enrolled (could be the reduced form of 5.)

CJ

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bhanna"Each subject enrolled in the study presented..."

It would really help us if you posted the complete sentence!

e.g.

"Each subject enrolled in the study presented a short summary of their reasons why they agreed to participate."

A subject is a person who participates in an experimental study.

"enrolled in the study" is a modifying phrase that says they were enrolled previously in this study.