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Hi everybody,

I have to translate this text in Italian but I have some difficulties in translating the verbs.

"After last summer's "bra wars" over textiles, the European union appeared set to introduce restrictions on shoe imports from China and Vietnam. Countries such as Italy have been lobbying for the quotas: shoe imports from China to the EU rose by 300% in the nine months ending in October 2205"

I know that the "simple past" is used to talk about actions or stated in a precise moment in the past. The problem is with the "present perfect continuous" which in Italian is translated differently dipending on contexts. Does the verb in bold type above refer to something happened in the past or does it have a present meaning? In other words, is it more similar to the firs, the second or the third sentence below here:

1. I have been living in Paris for ten years

2. I have been writing lots of emails

3. I've been writing that email to Jack and it's taken an hour

thank you
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From what I remember of Italian, you're going to have to translate it as if it said "... are lobbying since some time ...".

As for the English examples, I'm lost as to what you're getting at. All of them are present perfect continuous. But the "have been lobbying" example is least like your third sentence and most like the second, if that helps!

CJ
Comments  
"After last summer's "bra wars" over textiles, the European union appeared set to introduce restrictions on shoe imports from China and Vietnam. Countries such as Italy have been lobbying for the quotas: shoe imports from China to the EU rose by 300% in the nine months ending in October 2205"

This article looks and sounds fine to me. I don't see anything as incorrect. Perhaps, the part after the colons needs to be modified a little. It doesn't connect well with a colon.
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Thank you for your answer. I know it is correct. I just would like to know wheter you percieve the secon verb in bold type as having past or present meaning.
 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
"have been lobbying" is an action started in the past and is still continuing...Italy is still trying to get China to agree to limit cheap exports or to set a fixed number, but no decision yet.

"rose" is simple past - a defined period in the past = "in the 9 months ending in October 2005".

the more difficult situation to explain is the first verb, "appeared set": you have two verbs, the first in the simple past, again because there is a defined period in the past ("After last summer's"). "set" is the tricky verb, as this is one of those verbs with various very irregular usages.

Examples: My mind is set.= I have decided.

She set the table = She has put all the place settings on the table.

The space shuttle is set for launch.= Everything is ready for the space shuttle to fly.

So, in your case, the actual verb phrase is "set to introduce" = ready to introduce, prepared to introduce.

I hope this helps you.
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