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(1) The teacher explained the meaning of modifying phrases, and she pointed to the sentence on the board.
(2)
The teacher explained the meaning of modifying phrases, pointing to the sentence on the board.

Most grammar books say (1) and (2) is the same. But do you naive speakers really sense both are exactly the same? Do 'and she pointed...' and 'pointing...' have the same 'weight' of information?

I don't know, but, to me, it seems that the participle 'pointing' in (2) is very 'light'---it's just additional information to the main clause 'the teacher explained...'---whereas 'and she pointed...' in (1) is as 'heavy' as the main clause; it sounds like it has the same informational value with the main clause.
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To me there is a time difference.

In the first it sounds as though she made her explanation then turned and pointed at the sentence.

In the second she was explaining while pointing at the sentence.
Thank you, nona. But right now I'm not thinking about the dergree of synchronism. Let's take another example.

(3) He had no alternative, and he gave in to their demands.
(4) Having no alternative, he gave in to their demands.

Now, do you sense the same degree of impact in 'he had no alternative' and 'having no alternative'? Do you feel they have the same weight of information?
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I think if you said SO he gave into their demands, you have that sense of "causation" that you get from the second more than the first.
Taka(1) The teacher explained the meaning of modifying phrases, and she pointed to the sentence on the board.
(2) The teacher explained the meaning of modifying phrases, pointing to the sentence on the board.

I think that in sentence 1 the teacher first explained and then she pointed, and in sentence 2 she explained and pointing at the same time.

Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Hi Taka,

But do you naive speakers really sense both are exactly the same . . . Somehow, I sense that you are not going to take our comments seriously!

Perhaps saying it in the form of a clause rather than a simple phrase lends what is said a bit more strength, emphasis, weight, importance.

Best wishes, Clive
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CliveHi Taka,

But do you naive speakers really sense both are exactly the same . . . Somehow, I sense that you are not going to take our comments seriously!


Oh! What a stupid typo! It's 'native'.

But I know you knew I made a typo, Clive.

Anyway, sorry!

ClivePerhaps saying it in the form of a clause rather than a simple phrase lends what is said a bit more strength, emphasis, weight, importance.

Best wishes, Clive

Good! Thank you, Clive!