If you wish to express that something did not go well, which of the following forms would be correct and which would be incorrect:

1) "It went bad" or "It wend badly"
2) "It turned out bad" or "It turned out badly"
3) "It ended up bad" or "It ended up badly"

I believe this is essentially the classic "feel bad"/"feel badly" controversy, and the correct answer hinges on whether the verb "went" and the phrasal verbs "turned out" and "ended up" can be used as linking verbs (and thus the adjectival forms would be correct) or if they are mere instransitive verbs (thus making the adverbial froms correct).

Thank you for any help you can provide.
1) "It went badly"
2) "It turned out badly"
3) "It ended up badly"
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I'm not too sure about "turned out bad/badly" and "ended up bad/badly" but I think the usage of 'went bad' and 'went badly' are quite distinguishable.

'went bad' means rotted
'went badly' means the process didn't go well

For example,
If you are talking about a stew you made last night which is rotting now, you can say 'it went bad'.

But, if you are referring to a business presentation that ended up as a disaster, you use 'it went badly'. You don't use 'went bad' because a business presentation cannot physically rot.
When 'bad' is describing the subject you use bad if it is describing the verb you use badly. Usually when dealing with feelings you use bad because the word 'bad' is describing the subject not the verb.