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We argue that the ethical principles of justice provide an essential foundation for policies to protect unborn generations and the poorest countries from climate change. Related issues arise in connection with current and persistently inadequate aid for these nations, in the face of growing threats to agriculture and water supply, and the rules of international trade that mainly benefit rich countries.


I wonder what the prepositional phrase "in the face of growing threats to agriculture" is modifying in this writing.

I think the prepositional phrase is modifying "these nations", judging by context.

Am I right?

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fire1I wonder what the prepositional phrase "in the face of growing threats to agriculture" is modifying in this writing. I think the prepositional phrase is modifying "these nations", judging by context.

No. It's 'arise'.

Related issues arise
in connection
with current and persistently inadequate aid
for these nations,
in the face of growing threats to agriculture and water supply,
and
(in the face of) the rules of international trade
......................................... that mainly benefit rich countries.

CJ