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A society which benefits only the strong and exploits the weak is not what it should be.

Is it possible to replace what with “how”?what about “as”?

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teacherJapanA society which benefits only the strong and exploits the weak is not what it should be. Is it possible to replace what with “how”? what about “as”?

If by "replace" you mean "replace with no change of meaning at all (or grammar)", then no.

[1] A society which benefits only the strong and exploits the weak is not what it should be.

[2] A society which benefits only the strong and exploits the weak is not how it should be.

[3] A society which benefits only the strong and exploits the weak is not as it should be.

In [1] the underlined element is a noun phrase in a 'fused' relative construction, meaning "that which it should be".

In [2] it's a subordinate interrogative clause (embedded question), where the meaning is "A society which benefits only the strong and exploits the weak is not the answer to the question 'How should should it be?'"

[3] has a similar meaning to [1], but the underlined element is a comparative clause serving as complement of "as".

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teacherJapanIs it possible to replace what with “how”?what about “as”?

Yes, those are both possible.

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Comments  
teacherJapanIs it possible to replace what with “how”?

It's not impossible, but I wouldn't do it. It sounds like the writer is not aware that "how" sits better with a state of affairs, not a concrete noun like "society", and "how" would sound too informal in an aphorism like that.

teacherJapanwhat about “as”?

Same thing but a bit less informal.

 BillJ's reply was promoted to an answer.
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Thank you very much, GPY and anonymous, for your detailed I instructions.
Thank you very much, Billj for your grammar tip.