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I have read a grammar book quote me the following eg.
Concord between subject and complement
1)Leah is a clever girl
2)they are naughty children
(they state girl and children is the complement of the subject leah and they)
but i thought girl and children are supposed to be object noun.

3)Mrs Das is a generous lady
4)Those are very beautiful ladies standing there.
(they state ladies and lady are feminine complements)

5)noun clauses -book state complements of verbs after verbs like is , appears, seem and etc.
eg. it seems (that pansy is very happy today) in bracket is the complement .

I am very confused because i don't know how to tell whether they are complement or noun because they are quite the same.

----confused when to use who and whom?
i know whom is to used with object and who is for person , but still a bit confuse

if you give me a sentence to , for , ( i know is to whom , or for whom ) but when come to question , i am lost?
whom should i give? or who should i give?.
who did you see? or whom did you see?
the man whom i spoke to yesterday , or the man who i spoke to ?

----------shall, could,should,would .

i know shall is the present tense of should and can for could
i know we and i use shall ,
but not sure when it is appropriate to use for my teacher said could should, and would is not necessary for past tense they (could be used) for present tense too. (which is right- could be used or could be use- it is true any thing after be must change to past participle)

eg she said, if u asked someone to do something , use should instead of shall becuase shall is like a command.

shall we go tommorrow?
should we go tommorrow?
(what is the different between these two) they can be used like that too right?

would you do that later or will you do that later ?

can you carry this now or could you carry this now ?

thank you so much for your kind assistance.

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With the verb BE (e.g., am, was, is, were, etc.) the object of the verb has a special name: it's called a subject complement. There are two kinds of subject complements: 1) a noun (it renames the subject) and an adjective (it tells us more about the subject. The noun is often called a predicate nominal and the adjective is often called a predicate adjective.

1) Leah is happy.

'happy' is a subject complement, and because it tells us more about 'Leah', it's an adjective, or predicate adjective.

It's possible to tell whether the subject complement is a noun or an adjective by adding it to the verb 'seem', like this,

She seems happy. (OK) Adjective
She seems a doctor. (Not OK) Noun

Nouns cannot occur after 'seem'.


You should give it to me.
Whom should I give it to? (OK)
To whom should I give it? (OK, very formal)
Who should I give it to? (OK, informal)

I saw him.
Whom did you see? (OK)
Who did you see? (OK, informal)

I spoke to a man yesterday.
Whom did you speak to? (OK)
To whom did you speak? (OK, very formal)
Who did you speak to? (OK, informal)

Comments  
Hello Casi,

Thank you so much for your assistance, It so nice of you, I have a better understanding now.
Can I asked a few questions?

You mentioned noun cannot occur after seem.

Why is that so? It seem to me that the sentence (she seem a doctor ) is ok. You mean this sentence is wrong because doctor is a noun.

Can you please help me to check whether am I right for the
following:

You are rich (rich is the complement verb of you -because it is an adjective or predicate adjective.)

They are naughty children (children is noun complement of they and naughty is the adjective complement )

Is that true any thing after be is past participle? eg

All these papers will be thrown into the dustin if you don't keep.

Iam quite poor at Plural noun but must use at singular verb, do you know of any books i can read to improve on this, most of the grammar book i brought had limited eg.

eg I know news , mathematics , trousers, scissors, one hundred dollars, fish and chips , butter and bread, they are plural but must use with singular verb.

Many Tks.