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"In some cases, the habitat that provides the best opportunity for survival may not be the same habitat as the one that provides for highest reproductive capacity because of requirements specific to the reproductive period. Thus, individuals of many resident species, confronted with the *fitness benefits* of control over a productive breeding site, may be forced to balance costs in the form of *lower nonbreeding survivorship* by remaining in the specific habitat where highest breeding success occurs."

Q1. What is "fitness benefits" here? Is it about some benefits from fitness which means 'health' or something?

Q2. What does "lower nonbreeding survivorship" mean here? It doesn't seem to make sense to me.

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anonymousQ1. What is "fitness benefits" here? Is it about some benefits from fitness which means 'health' or something

No. Fitness is a scientific term in evolutionary biology. Basically, the more fitness the species has, the more surviving offspring they have to reproduce in the next generation. But some habitats that are beneficial for the long life of an individual may have a lower fitness value for the species.

The only example I can think of is a dairy farm. The dairymen take care of the female cows and they live long lives, individually. But they do not have many offspring because there are no bulls in the herd. As a species, they do not have much fitness, but as individuals, they have excellent health and well-being.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fitness

anonymousQ2. What does "lower nonbreeding survivorship" mean here? It doesn't seem to make sense to me.

In the example of the cows, if they want to maximize their offspring, they have to accept shorter and unhealthier lives. Eg. the average lifetime in the breeding population (the free-roaming herds) will be lower than those in the non-breeding population (the dairy farm).

Comments  
anonymousQ1. What is "fitness benefits" here? Is it about some benefits from fitness which means 'health' or something?

That looks like jargon from evolution science. Evolution is often summarized as "survival of the fittest". "Fit" means "suitable" here, not "strong and healthy". Those that are best suited to the environment they find themselves in will produce the most offspring.

anonymousQ2. What does "lower nonbreeding survivorship" mean here? It doesn't seem to make sense to me.

Yeah, this is rather heavy going. If, from the standpoint of evolution, you set aside considerations of a population's breeding success and look only at the likelihood of the individuals not dying, you can call that "nonbreeding survivorship".

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I'm not still clear perfectly but your answer help me a lot. Thank you for your time:)

 AlpheccaStars's reply was promoted to an answer.

Thank you for your time and answer:) I can understand your analogy. It helps me a lot but I can't pinpoint the meaning of "fitness". Could it possible for you to change "fitness" as in "fitness benefits" into an easy word?

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Thus, individuals of many resident species, confronted with the fitness benefits of control over a productive breeding site, may be forced to balance costs in the form of lower nonbreeding survivorship by remaining in the specific habitat where highest breeding success occurs."

Paraphrasing:

Thus, individuals of many resident species, confronted with the choice between 1) the survival and proliferation of the species as a whole, and 2) their individual health and well-being, will choose to remain in the specific habitat where highest breeding success occurs (that is, the proliferation of the species), over living in another habitat where they will individually be safer, healthier, and longer-lived.

The first implies that they have control over the habitat which is overall most beneficial for the species because it fosters a high level of reproduction - that is lots of offspring.

I'm much clearer. Your explanation is always best:) Thank you for your kind and warmhearted help, Ms. AlpheccaStars