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"Please, put the books over there"
"Do circuits run back there?"
"Let's get away from there"
"Sam sold his computer to my friend from there"
I am confuse on classify the word "there". Sometimes it sounds like an adverb, sometimes it seems to be a pronoun. How can i distinguish?
The problem is: I think "there" replaces a noun phrase. For exemple, in the 4th sentence. I could replace "there" by "Londres". Is it a pronoun?
In the 1st and 2nd sentences... Are "back" and "over" adverbs or prepositions?

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No, it's not a pronoun.

Traditional grammar and most dictionaries treat locative "there" as an adverb, while some modern grammars treat it is as locative preposition.

As a preposition of spatial location, it typically means "to/in/from some place".

In examples like your Let's get away from there (where "there" is probably anaphoric), the "from" component is overtly expressed.

The same applies with "back" and "over" -- traditionally adverbs but according to some, prepositions.

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Artur Oliveira What part of speech is "there"?

That question is answered very differently depending which dictionary you consult. See the various possibilities and compare them at the links below.

https://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/there#there_3
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/there
https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/there
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/there?q=there_1

Artur OliveiraIn the 1st and 2nd sentences... Are "back" and "over" adverbs or prepositions?

adverbs

CJ

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Can you explain more? The reason why it could be both....

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Artur Oliveira

Can you explain more? The reason why it could be both....

To do that I'd have to tell you how I would classify 'there' if I were writing my own book on the subject since there seems to be no story that everyone agrees on where 'there' is concerned. Everyone and his brother has an opinion. Emotion: smile

I think I'd call it a demonstrative adverb of place in many contexts.

— Where is John?
— (pointing) There!

It's also used as a pro-form.

We're going to London, and we'll be there for two weeks before we return.

It's also (in a different definition) "the existential expletive".

There are a lot of wasps in our neighborhood this summer.

And so on. But why not find an article in linguistics by a professional on the subject instead?

CJ