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I am confused by the tense simplification in subordinate clauses and modal verbs which can be used to talk about the present or future.

Let's look at this sentence first:-

"Any person who wounds a person must be sentenced to permanent imprisonment."

"Must" in the main clause can be used to talk about the present or future.

So if "must" in the main clause talks about the future, and I apply the time simplification rule to the subordinate clause, the time of the subordinate clause should be future: "Any person who (will) wound a person must be sentenced to permanent imprisonment".

But if "must" in the main clause talks about the present, the time of the subordinate clause should be present, telling in general who "any person" is .

How can I interprete the times of the main and suboridnate clauses?

Another question is that if "must" in the main clause talks about the present, can I say that the main clause does not only refer to the present, but also refers to all the time (i.e. it is a thing in general or a permanent situation)?

Thank for your help in advance Emotion: smile
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'The main clause does not only refer to the present, but also refers to all the time (i.e. it is a thing in general or a permanent situation)'-- This is the correct answer to all your questions, I think. In any case, 'Any person who (will) wound a person 'is wrong.
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Dear Mister Micawber, thanks for your reply. One more question: I have read some grammar books which always classify that

1) if + present + present (Zero Conditional) is used to talk about things which are always true;

2) if + present + future (First Conditional) is used to talk about things in the future.

If I paraphrase my previous example "Any person who wounds a person must be sentenced to permanent imprisonment" to "If any person wounds a person, s/he must be sentenced to permanent imprisonment", which conditional (Zero, First) does it fall into ??

If it falls into Zero Conditional, it may not make sense as the modal verb "must" contradicts "always true". If it falls into First Conditional, the times of the if-clause and dependent clause are future; it may also not make sense as the statement seems to talk about the act and consequence in general (as you advised).

How can I classify if-clauses of this kind ??

Thank for your help in advance Emotion: smile
'Must be' is present. hence 0 Conditional by your definition. I don't see that 'must' contradicts 'always true' at all; they seem synonymous to me.