The structural immaturity of the infant brain means that the emotions that require thought, such as guilt, pride, despair can’t be experienced in the first year because the cognitive abilities necessary for their emergence haven’t yet developed.

Which is closer in meaning to the underlined part?

1) arrival 2) emergency

3) insistence 4) merger

My choice is definitely 2). But the answer is 1). I’d really appreciate it if you could let me know what your answer is.

teacherJapanMy choice is definitely 2).

An emergency is something that requires immediate action. I don't see that here.

teacherJapanBut the answer is 1).

Right. The abilities emerge, that is , come out, appear, after the first birthday (by Western reckoning).

( https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/emerge )

Such a question is tricky because once you see "emergence", you will think that answer must be "emergency". They look similar, but they are totally different in meaning. I suggest you look it up in the dictionary.

Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
Thank you very much, anonymous and moonrise.