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1. Why do we have to put the article "a" when the words "maximum" or "minimum" seem to indicate only one, the one?

It is a maximum/minmum number/score.

2. When can we use this word "unto" properly. I got this partical sentence from a post here.

They are constructions unto themselves, ...

3. Is the main consideration for putting or not putting a comma before the word "starting" is whether the whole colored phrase is important to the overall meaning?

We will start to pack our stuff starting Thursday.
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Comments  
1. Same answer as for "head" and "big stomach" in another post. Your only choices are a and the. (I hope I understood your question correctly here.)

2. unto themselves = without connections or similarities to others; isolated from others; distinctly different from other constructions

3. I don't think start ... starting makes sense in terms of style. How about

We'll pack our things starting Thursday.

I see no need for a comma.

CJ
Edited later: CJ has given you a better reply while I was typing mine. But anyway, this is my take on it.

First question, my attempt: "maximum/minimum" are adjectives, it is the noun that needs an article. You have to limit the number of "numbers/scores, ...", right?

Regarding your second question, the cobuild dictionary says:

1 Unto was used to indicate that something was done or given to someone. (LITERARY or OLD-FASHIONED)

And he said unto him, `Who is my neighbor?'...

I will do unto others what they did to me.

PREP

= to

2 Unto was used to indicate that something continued until a particular time. (LITERARY or OLD-FASHIONED)

Be ye faithful unto the end.

PREP

= until

And finally the last question: I don't think that a comma is needed there, "starting Thursday" is an adverbial phrase and can be replaced by "tomorrow", for example : We will start to pack our stuff tomorrow.

Hope that it helps. However if you have still confused, or I haven't done a good job in helping you, a native speaker would come to your rescue. Good luck.
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Thank you, Languagelover and you.

As to No. 1, when I think of the words like "MAXIMUM" and "MINIMUM," I am thinking similar to that of "highest and lowest" and "greatest and worst"; thus, I tend to put the definite article "the" and not thinking about putting the indefinite article "a". The sentences below with the indefinite article "a" are sometimes gives me a very uneasy feeling, making me to dither between the choices but sooner or later, I relent to the choice of the article "the."

He is a top student.

It is a maximum point you can get.

There can be only one top student and only one maximum point you can get I think and they deserve to be modified ?? with the definite article "the." HELP.

As to No. 2, can you give me one example or two that have a comma before the phrase "starting Thursday"? Do they have commas before the phrases because the phrases are not crucial to the overall meaning?
LanguageLoverThe similarities among the languages are more than their differences!
I find the same to be true of religions.
You don't have to treat "maximum/minimum" the same as "highest/lowest", though they may substitute for each other in some contexts. Maybe they have similar usages in your own language, that's why it's not easy for you to digest the indifinite article.

Actually, it is the maximum point you can get; but there is a maximum point you can get (on the exam). And sometimes we may have more than one maximum points. So, what we are talking about determines the kind of article is needed.

And to your other question, we can use comma in the following context:

I'm going to pack up my things next week, starting Thursday 21th.
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To Philip,

I have the same feeling about religions, but it seems the number of people who consider themselves expert at religions is so high, their opinions so diverse, and the subject is too delicate, that you cannot discuss things easily! Anyway, I think we all believe in the same God, even in Hinduism who many think is a polytheistic religion. Just our approaches to reach God are different.
Thank you very much, LanguageLover.

As to No. 1, can you give me one tiny example of the case where there are two (or more) maximum points in a exam or two top students in a class? Help.
Of course there cannot be two maximum grades (I think this is what you mean by point) in an exam or class, but there could be two maximum points on a chart. Or we can talk about two maximum grades ot two top students in two different classes of a school, ...

Hope it helps.
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