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Consider this sentence, please:

Looking at her now you’d never guess she had been so upset.

Can I use "has been" or "was" in place of "had been" in the sentence above?

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Rizan MalikCan I use "has been" or "was" in place of "had been" in the sentence above?

Yes. 'was' seems more idiomatic than 'has been', but I think both are acceptable.

CJ

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Consider this sentence, please:

2) I’d never have guessed that they were married.

Are they still married or is the sentence talking about them being married in the past? Can I use "had been" in place of "were" in sentence 2)?

Rizan MalikAre they still married or is the sentence talking about them being married in the past?

They're still married.

Rizan MalikCan I use "had been" in place of "were" in sentence 2)?

Yes, but with the meaning that either 1) they were a married couple in the past but are no longer, or 2) they got married in a marriage ceremony at some time in the past.

CJ

Thanks.

CalifJim
Rizan MalikAre they still married or is the sentence talking about them being married in the past?

They're still married.

Rizan MalikCan I use "had been" in place of "were" in sentence 2)?

Yes, but with the meaning that either 1) they were a married couple in the past but are no longer, or 2) they got married in a marriage ceremony at some time in the past.

CJ

In the same sentence 2):

2) I’d never have guessed that they were married.

Does "I’d never have guessed" mean "I'd never have guessed before being told and I have just been told this"? Would it be possible to replace "were" with "are"?

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Rizan MalikDoes "I’d never have guessed" mean "I'd never have guessed before being told and I have just been told this"?

It means the first part (I'd never have guessed before being told) because that's the function of the tense it's expressed in, but it doesn't mean the second part (I have just been told this); however, it implies the second part to some extent because that's the situation in which it's most appropriate to say the sentence in the first place.

Rizan MalikWould it be possible to replace "were" with "are"?

Yes, but that's less idiomatic. Expressions with "would" fall more naturally into the class of tenses that may be called "past point of view" tenses, so the past (were) is more idiomatic than the present (are) in that context.

This were is not a marker of time in this context, however. Here were is a modal preterite, i.e., a past tense that is reinterpreted as belonging to present time. Likewise in many other situations such as when you notice someone you know at a large gathering, approach them, and say I didn't know you were here. Obviously, they are "here", but the introductory didn't know grammatically attracts the matching past tense were.

CJ

CalifJim
Rizan MalikDoes "I’d never have guessed" mean "I'd never have guessed before being told and I have just been told this"?

It means the first part (I'd never have guessed before being told) because that's the function of the tense it's expressed in, but it doesn't mean the second part (I have just been told this); however, it implies the second part to some extent because that's the situation in which it's most appropriate to say the sentence in the first place.

CJ

Can I write sentence 2) below as sentence 3)?

2) I'd never have guessed they were married.

3) I'd never have guessed they would be married now.

Rizan Malik

Can I write sentence 2) below as sentence 3)?

2) I'd never have guessed they were married.

3) I'd never have guessed they would be married now.

Yes, but it sounds a little strange to my ear. In the given context I expect

I'd never have guessed they would still be married now.

CJ

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CalifJim

I'd never have guessed they would still be married now.

CJ

Does this sentence imply that something bad happened in their married life and the speaker is surprised to know that they are still married, despite of what happened?

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