Australian English
It is very easy to identify Australian English when you hear it being spoken, and this depends on a variety of linguistic features. The most distinct of them all would be the ‘broadness' of this variety of English. Another well-known feature of Australian English is elision (which is the omission of a letter or a syllable in a word or phrase producing a more easily-pronounced result) and assimilation. Often entire sentences are contracted into a single word.

For example:
"How are you travelling?" can be shortened to "Ayatravelin?"
For this reason Broad Australian can be difficult to decipher to non- Australians.
This feature is sometimes referred to as "Strine", which in itself refers to "Australian". This phrase was made popular in the 1965 book "Let Stalk Strine" (i.e. "Let's talk Australian").
Another common feature of Australian English is the formation of diminutives by adding -o or -ie to the ends of words, which are normally abbreviated.

Some examples of words ending in -o are the following:
• abo (aborigine- now considered very offensive),
• arvo (afternoon),
• servo (service station),
• rego (annual motor vehicle registration)
• ambo (ambulance officer).
Some examples of words ending in -ie are the following:
• barbie (barbeque),
• bikkie (biscuit),
Occasionally, a -za diminutive is used, usually for personal names where the first of multiple syllables ends in "r". This is more or less an endearment terms, which means that it is used for family members and close friends.

Some examples include:
• Barry which becomes Bazza
• Karen which becomes Kazza
• Sharon which becomes Shazza.
Many Australians also start their sentences with "Look,..." , especially when they are replying to a question. This word doesn't really serve any purpose. In fact, one case say that its general use is that of a stand-in for "umm" or "err" which is more common in other varieties of English, such as, British English.
The following sections will focus on some of the more common (possibly more fun) features of Australian English.

Rhyming slang
A very common feature of Australian English is rhyming slang. This is based on the Cockney rhyming slang and it was imported by people who migrated from the UK, especially from London, in the 19th century. To explain how rhyming slang is formed is a somewhat complicated task, so what I'm going to do is give you an example to see how it works.
So here we go:
In Australian English, if someone tells you that they are going to "have a captain" or "have a captain cook" , what they really mean is that they are going to "have a look" at something. Why?
The answer is simply that in the phrase "Captain Cook", "cook" rhymes with "look", so to "have a captain cook," or to "have a captain", means to "have a look". This is how rhyming slang works.
In the past it was often used to create euphemistic terms for obscene words. However, fortunately or unfortunately, this feature is nowadays not as widely used as it used to be in the past. One of the reasons given is that Australian English is now being more and more influenced by popular mass culture and it might be losing some of its more distinct features.

Spoken Australian English
This variety is thought to be highly colloquial and informal. One of the most distinct features of spoken Australian English is the frequent use of long and extremely descriptive similes.
Some examples include the following:
• "Slow as a wet weekend",
• "Built like a brick ***- house",
• "Mad as a cut snake"
• "Flat out like a lizard drinking".
Australians are also well-known for their directness when speaking. A commonly-used phrase when Aussies are trying to justify this is - "why call spade a spade, when you can call it a bloody shovel?!" It can definitely not get any more direct that that! This can, however, sometimes lead to misunderstandings and offence especially if the other participant in the conversation does not share the same directness and humour.
Speaking of humour, Australian English is also famous for the use of deadpan humour. This means that in the conversation the joker will make a shocking or silly statement without openly stating that they are joking. One example of this is the tale or story that one can see kangaroos hopping across Sydney Harbour Bridge.

Courtesy of Elanguest Language School